equivalent units of production

Part of calculating production costs involves figuring out the total cost of production per unit. This is done by dividing the total manufacturing cost by the overall number of units that were made. Understanding equivalent production units is essential for businesses to accurately determine production costs and track inventory. It enables businesses to estimate the total number of completed units that could be produced from the work in progress.

equivalent units of production

Second, accountants assign a level of completeness to the units that are still in production at the end of the accounting period in question. Therefore, a unit could be 10% complete or even 90% complete at the end of the accounting period. Accurate record-keeping is crucial for the calculation of equivalent units of production. Companies should maintain detailed records of all inputs and outputs, including raw materials, labor, overhead costs, and any changes in the production process. EUP is particularly useful in process costing, where the production process is continuous and involves multiple stages of production.


For example, 10 units in the process that are 40% complete means that the output is equal to four equivalent units or four partially produced units. The production of goods does not start or stop at the end of an accounting period. The question that arises is how to calculate the cost incurred on the goods that are in the process (i.e. works in progress) and the finished products. This calculation allows the company to spread out its production costs over 440 equivalent units, rather than the actual 500 chairs it worked on, since 150 of those chairs were not yet finished.

Therefore, proper costing methodology for 100 units in the process would entail 80 equivalent units of material, and 60 equivalent units of conversion (i.e., labor and overhead). (Figure)The following data show the units in beginning work in process inventory, the number of units started, the number of units transferred, and the percent completion of the ending work in process for conversion. Given that materials are added 50% at the beginning of the process and 50% at the end of the process, what are the equivalent units for material and conversion costs for each quarter using the weighted-average method? The cost per unit of material is $5.45, and the cost per unit for conversion is $6.20 per unit.

Manufacturing companies use a lot of ways to figure out what their operational strategy needs to be when they make their products. The operational strategy is a plan that includes the goals and behaviors used to accomplish the goals of a company. These measurements supply different information depending on the tool used and the intended outcome.

Cost accounting

The total of the cost per unit for material ($1.17) and for conversion costs ($2.80) is the total cost of each unit transferred to the finishing department ($3.97). The weighted average method of computing equivalent units of production blends together the units and cost of current period with the units and cost of previous period. Under this method, the equivalents units of production in a department are equal to the units completed and transferred out plus the equivalent units in ending work in process inventory.

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We do this because it is easier to account for whole units then parts of a unit. For example, if we have 3 units 1/3 of the way complete, we can add them together to make 1 equivalent unit (1/3 + 1/3 + 1/3). We can make this calculation easier by multiplying the units by a percentage of complete. EUP provides a more accurate picture of production output and cost analysis, as it considers partially completed units and provides a way to compare the cost of production to the number of units completed. Suppose there are changes in the production process, such as changes in raw materials or production methods.

Equivalent Units of Production: Definition

All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly. This involves deducting the closing work-in-progress from the amount introduced in the process during the current period. Harold Averkamp (CPA, MBA) has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years.

Conversion costs are the direct labor and manufacturing overhead that is used during the time period, even though some of the product was not completed during the time period. Managerial and cost accountants use the equivalent units of production to allocate production costs to units during the manufacturing process. For instance, calculating the cost of goods produced is simple if there is no beginning or ending goods in process inventory. All of the costs incurred during the period would be allocated to the goods because they were all completed. Equivalent units must be considered relative to each of the factors of production. In other words, 80% of necessary direct material may be in process but only 60% of the direct labor and factory overhead.

  • It also allows managers to calculate per unit cost of production to help determine unit pricing for customers.
  • Then number of units started and completed (i.e. units started less closing stock) are added.
  • For the shaping department, the materials are 100% complete with regard to materials costs and 35% complete with regard to conversion costs.
  • Suppose there are changes in the production process, such as changes in raw materials or production methods.
  • Once the cost per EU is calculated, the costs are allocated to the goods that were partially finished and completely finished during the period.
  • At the end Of any given period there are likely to be partly completed units (work-in-process).

This means that $100,000 (10,000 X $10) of labor costs will be assigned to the finished units and $3,000 (300 equivalent units X $10 labor cost per equivalent unit) will be assigned to the 1,000 partially completed units. Once the equivalent units for materials and conversion are known, the cost per equivalent unit is computed in a similar manner as the units accounted for. The costs for material and conversion need to reconcile with the total beginning inventory and the costs incurred for the department during that month. In process costing, the total output of a department during a particular period of time is usually termed as equivalent units of production.

Challenges in Calculating Equivalent Units of Production

In that case, they may need to adjust their production schedule to ensure that they have a steady supply of partially completed units to work on. EUP helps businesses to determine the value of their inventory at different stages of production accurately. This is important because the value of work-in-progress inventory is not the same as the value of finished goods inventory, and businesses need to know the true value of their inventory to make informed decisions. To measure output accurately, these partially completed units must be considered in the output computation. To solve the problem of work-in-progress, we can calculate equivalent units of production (or “effective production”). The output of a department is always stated in terms of equivalent units of production.

equivalent units of production

Soap Production Company’s Mixing department shows the following information for the 1,000 units of product remaining in work in process at the end of the period. It shows that 650,000 units were transferred on to the Skim/Alloy Department, leaving 250,000 tons still in process. Navarro started the month of June with 300,000 tons of iron ore in process in the Melting Department. When two or more dissimilar products are manufactured in the same process, a simple average process cost may give misleading results. From the following details, prepare statement of equivalent production, statement of cost, statement of evaluation ad Process Account by following FIFO Method. During January 2012 units were introduced into Process I. The normal loss was estimated at 5% on input.

Colleges use FTES data to plan and make decisions about course offerings, staffing, and facility needs. Although having information about the number of students enrolled (the headcount) is helpful, headcount data do not provide an indication of whether the students are full time or part time. Clearly, full-time students take more classes each term and generally use more resources than part-time students.

For example, calculating equivalent production units may involve different costs, such as direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead in the manufacturing industry. In this case, the equivalent production units for each cost type may be calculated separately and then added together to obtain the total equivalent units for the period. It involves the percentage of completed units, the units transferred to other departments or that are finished, and units in the work-in-progress inventory.

The limitation of equivalent units computation is that it does not take into account the number of units completed in any specific unit. For example, let’s assume that a company manufactured 2000 motorcycles for this year and 30% of motorcycles were lost due to defects. If these defects are non recurring then such units should be excluded from equivalent production. Finally, the equivalent units of production calculated via the previous three steps should be aggregated to ascertain the total output in terms of equivalent units or equivalent production.

equivalent units of production

The concept of EUP assumes that partially completed units are equivalent to a certain number of complete units. In other words, EUP estimates the number of complete units that could have been produced based on the degree of completion of partially completed units. At the end, he determines that his 100 units are only 70 percent the way through retained earnings calculation the production process. In order to compute the total output of department X for the month, these equivalent units would be added to the units completed during the month. The department X’s total output for the month is, therefore, 5,400 units (5,000 units completed during the month + 400 equivalent units in ending work in process inventory).

However, the units in ending work in process require more thoughtful consideration. For example, ten units in process that are 30% complete equate to three equivalent units of output. None of the ten units is complete; merely the equivalent amount of work necessary to complete three units is said to have been performed. Regular analysis and review of the calculation of equivalent production units can help identify errors and inconsistencies and enable companies to make necessary adjustments. It can help ensure the calculation is accurate and can be used for effective decision-making. Calculating Equivalent Units of Production (EUP) is a crucial process in manufacturing accounting that helps businesses accurately determine the cost of goods sold and the value of their inventory.